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Ni iki cyabashisha umubano w’u Rwanda na Uganda kongera gucayuka?

Yanditswe na IGIHE
Kuya 11 Gicurasi 2021 saa 07:38
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Imyaka igiye kuba ine hagati y’u Rwanda na Uganda hatutumba umwuka utari mwiza na mba. Nubwo n’ubusanzwe wahozemo agatotsi kuva muri za 1996, gukomeza ubwo ibihugu byombi byinjiraga mu ntambara ya Congo, yewe na nyuma yaho, ntabwo hari harabayeho impamvu zatuma bigera aho imipaka ifungwa ndetse n’imigenderanire ikaba agatereranzamba. Kuba umwuka mubi hagati y’ibihugu byombi warageze kuri uru rwego bifite impamvu zabiteye tuza kugarukaho. Gusa icyibazwa cyane ni ukumenya icyakorwa ngo uyu mubano ubashe kongera kunaguka.

“Umbajije neza ngo nkubwire [ikibazo] imizi yacyo ntabwo mbisobanukiwe bihagije”. Aya ni amagambo ya Perezida Paul Kagame yo ku wa 1 Gicurasi 2021, avuga ku mubano w’u Rwanda na Uganda, agaragaza ko atazi imvano y’icyateye Uganda guheza inguni mu bikorwa bigamije gupyinagaza u Rwanda.

Ibi ni ibya vuba, ariko reka dusubire inyuma mu myaka 20 ishize. Ku wa Kane Nyakanga 2001, ubwo u Rwanda rwizihizaga Umunsi wo Kwihobora, Perezida Kagame wari umaze iminsi 438 atangiye kuyobora u Rwanda, yagarutse ku mubano n’umuturanyi warwo wo mu Majyaruguru, ati “U Rwanda rushaka kugirana umubano mwiza n’abaturanyi, kandi twiteguye gukora igisabwa cyose”.

Muri iyo minsi, bamwe mu basirikare bakuru muri Uganda barimo Col. Anthony Kyakabale, bari barahungiye mu Rwanda. Col. Kyakabale yageze ku butaka bw’u Rwanda atangaza ko agiye gushoza intambara ku gihugu cye.

U Rwanda rucyumva amagambo ye, rwihutiye kumwamaganira kure, ruvuga ko adakwiriye kwitwaza kuba yarakiriwe mu gihugu, ngo yihishe inyuma y’umudendezo afite hanyuma ajye guhungabanya igihugu gituranyi.

Itangazo ry’u Rwanda ryo ku wa 4 Nyakanga 2001, rigira riti “Guverinoma y’u Rwanda yemeye kumwakira mu gihugu nk’igikorwa cy’ubugiraneza. Guverinoma y’u Rwanda ntizigera yemera iteshagaciro ry’uko kwakirwa neza ngo gukoreshwe mu bikorwa bya politiki bibangamira umuturanyi”.

Icyo gihe abasirikare bakuru bagera kuri 50 ba Uganda ni bo bari bahunze igihugu cyabo, ariko bageze mu Rwanda, rubakurira inzira ku murima, rubamenyesha ko badashobora gukoresha ubutaka bwarwo mu gutera igihugu baturutsemo.

Ubusanzwe uku ni ko umuturanyi yitwara, ntaguteza abagizi ba nabi, ntaha urwaho amabandi n’abandi bagamije gusenya, ahubwo akubera aho utari icyajya kuguhungabanya akagikumira hakiri kare.

Umwuka mubi hagati y’u Rwanda na Uganda watangiye kera nubwo waje gufata indi ntera mu myaka mike ishize. Abenshi bibuka intambara ikomeye n’ubu ifatwa nk’iyasize igikomere ku mitima y’ingabo za Uganda, ubwo zakubitirwaga n’iz’u Rwanda i Kisangani.

Brig. Gen. James Kazini, ni we wari uyoboye Ingabo za Uganda mu Ntambara ya Congo, mu gihe mu rugamba rwagejeje Museveni ku butegetsi na none yari ayoboye abasirikare barimo n’impunzi z’Abanyarwanda.

Ubwo FPR yagabaga igitero cyo kubohora u Rwanda, Kazini yari afite ipeti rya Colonel. Inyandiko Scott Mcknight yise “The Rise and Fall of the Rwanda-Uganda Alliance” igaruka ku bihe byaranze umubano w’ibihugu byombi n’uko byatangiye kurebana ay’ingwe.

Umwe mu basirikare bakuru mu Ngabo za Uganda yatanzemo ubuhamya avugamo uburyo Kazini yasuzuguraga Abanyarwanda. Ati “Kazini yakundaga kwita Abanyarwanda “udusore, kandi ntabwo babikundaga”.

Uyu Kazini ni we wasabye ko Ingabo z’u Rwanda zahagarika imirwano, nyuma yo kubona ko abasirikare yari ayoboye i Kisangani bagiye kuhashirira.

Ikindi gihamya cy’uko agatotsi mu mubano atari aka none ni ibaruwa ya Museveni yo ku wa 28 Kanama 2000. Icyo gihe yandikiye uwari Umunyamabanga wa Leta w’u Bwongereza ushinzwe Iterambere Mpuzamahanga, Clare Short, amusaba ko Uganda yahabwa inkunga yisumbuye ikava kuri miliyoni 113$ ikagera kuri miliyoni 139$, mu rwego rwo kwigaranzura igisirikare cy’u Rwanda.

Museveni ubwe yashatse guhungabanya umutekano w’u Rwanda mu ngeri zose, bigera n’aho bigizwemo uruhare n’umuvandimwe we Saleh biyemeza gutera inkunga Seth Sendashonga ngo ashinge umutwe wari kuba urimo n’abahoze muri FDLR hanyuma ngo batere u Rwanda.

Igitabo cy’Umufaransa Gérard Prunier cyitwa "Africa’s World War : Congo, the Rwandan Genocide, and the Making of a Continental Catastrophe", kibigarukaho neza.

Prunier agira ati “Ku cyumweru tariki 3 Gicurasi 1998, yahuriye i Nairobi n’umuvandimwe wa Museveni, Salim Saleh. Ibintu ntabwo byari bimeze neza hagati ya Kampala na Kigali, Salim yari ashyigikiye igitekerezo cyo gufasha undi mutwe wifuza kwinjira mu mukino.”

Na mbere hose politiki ya Museveni ku Rwanda yari uko azarugenzura uko ashaka, ku buryo “abasore” bahoze mu gisirikare cye nibamara gufata ubutegetsi bazajya bamufata nka “Papa Mukuru”, cyangwa u Rwanda rukaba nk’intara ya Uganda dore ko inaruruta inshuro 9,1.

Kuva kuri iyo ntambara, ibintu byafashe indi ntera, bikara cyane mu 2017 ubwo Abanyarwanda batangiraga guhigwa bukware. Ubu imyaka ibaye ine, Uganda itaracyemura ibibazo u Rwanda rwayigaragarije bibangamiye umubano, birimo ihohotera rikorerwa Abanyarwanda, kuba uyu muturanyi afasha imitwe yitwaje intwaro irimo RNC, akanabangamira ibikorwa by’ubucuruzi by’u Rwanda.

Perezida Yoweri Kaguta Museveni amaze imyaka myinshi yarinangiye ku cyatuma umubano w'u Rwanda na Uganda usubira mu buryo

Urwango rwatumye Uganda yemera kugwa mu bihombo

Umwuka mubi hagati y’ibihugu no kwinangira ku ruhande rwa Uganda mu gukemura ibibazo u Rwanda rwagaragaje, wabaye imbarutso y’ibihombo bikomeye biturutse ku ifungwa ry’umupaka wa Gatuna.

Mbere y’uko umupaka ufungwa, Uganda yinjizaga nibura miliyoni 18$ ku kwezi biturutse mu bicuruzwa yoherezaga mu Rwanda, gusa nko muri Mata 2019 yinjije ibihumbi 40 $ gusa mu gihe muri Kamena yinjije ibihumbi 60$.

Hagati ya Kamena 2019 na Kamena 2020, amafaranga aturuka mu byo u Rwanda rwohereza muri Uganda yavuye kuri miliyoni 131,8$ agera kuri miliyoni 5.1$ ugereranyije n’uko byari bimeze mu gihe kimwe hagati ya Kamena 2018 na Kamena 2019.

U Rwanda rwanyuzaga muri Uganda ibicuruzwa byarwo bigiye mu mahanga birimo ikawa, icyayi n’amabuye y’agaciro kugira ngo bigere ku cyambu cya Mombasa muri Kenya. Rwahise ruca undi muvuno, bishingiye ku mubano mwiza rufitanye n’abandi baturanyi, ruhitamo kuzajya rubinyuza muri Tanzania ku buryo byakuyeho igihombo kinini.

Ikibazo kiracyari kibisi...

Kubera ibihe Isi irimo, ubu bisa n’aho amaso ahanzwe Covid-19, ibindi byose bikaza nyuma, ibyo bituma hari uwagira ngo umubano n’umuturanyi wo mu Majyaruguru wasubiye mu buryo.

Si ko biri, ikibazo kiracyari uko cyahoze na mbere kuko ibimenyetso bigaragaza ko Museveni na Rujugiro Tribert bagikorana, gufasha abashaka guhungabanya umutekano w’u Rwanda no kuba Uganda yarakomeje kuba indiri y’abakekwaho ibyaha nabyo birakomeje.

Ibi binakubitana n’uko umunsi ku wundi Abanyarwanda bafatirwa muri Uganda, bagafungwa bitwa intasi. Mu minsi ishize, Uganda yajugunye ku mupaka Abanyarwanda barimo n’abana bato biga mu mashuri yisumbuye, bashinjwa kuba intasi.

Kuva uyu mwaka wa 2021 watangira, ku mupaka wa Kagitumba hamaze kujugunywa abanyarwanda inshuro eshanu, nyuma igihe bafungiye muri Uganda. Abakiriwe n’u Rwanda muri izo nshuro ni 42 barimo n’abana bigaga mu mashuri yisumbuye cyo kimwe n’abagore batandukanyijwe n’abagabo babo bakaza kongera guhurira ku mupaka bose bari bafunzwe nta n’umwe uz’iby’undi.

Umwe mu basesenguzi baganiriye na IGIHE, yavuze ko iki kibazo kimaze igihe kinini kandi gishingiye kuri Museveni wumva ko yacisha bugufi u Rwanda ku ngufu. Ati “Ni ibibazo bya kera bigaragara, bishamikiye ku kuba Museveni yarumvaga ko u Rwanda ruzamera nk’akarere ka Uganda FPR imaze gufata ubutegetsi. Byose bishingiye kuri Museveni.”

Inama zari ukugosorera mu rucaca

Kuva ibibazo byafata indi ntera, ibihugu byombi byiyambaje inzira y’ibiganiro bitangira Perezida Kagame agirira uruzinduko muri Uganda, nyuma hashyirwaho Komisiyo ihuriweho n’Abaminisitiri ku mpande zombi kugira ngo iganire ku buryo bwo gushaka igisubizo.

Habaye inama zirenga enye zihuje impande zombi, bigera n’aho abandi bakuru b’ibihugu binjira mu kibazo uhereye kuri Perezida wa Kenya, Uhuru Kenyatta, wakoreye uruzinduko i Kigali n’i Kampala.

Perezida Kagame yiyambaje João Lourenço wa Angola na Félix Tshisekedi wa RDC nk’abahuza, ndetse haba inama eshatu bayoboye zose zitigeze zigira icyo zitanga.

Urugero, muri Gashyantare 2020, abakuru b’ibihugu byombi hamwe n’abahuza bagiranye inama ebyiri, imwe yabereye i Luanda ikurikirwa n’iyabereye i Gatuna nyuma y’ibyumweru bibiri.

Zari zikurikiye ibiganiro Perezida Kagame yagiranye n’intumwa za Uganda zirangajwe imbere na Minisitiri w’Ububanyi n’Amahanga, Sam Kuteesa, ku wa 18 Ukwakira 2019; indi nama y’abakuru b’ibihugu n’abahuza yabereye i Luanda ku wa 21 Kanama; yakurikiraga iyari yabaye na none ku wa 12 Nyakanga 2019.

Ni mu gihe Perezida Kagame ubwe yari yanagiriye uruzinduko muri Uganda ku wa 25 Werurwe 2018 aganira na mugenzi we kuri iki kibazo. Izo nama ntizirimo izahuje Komite za ba Minisitiri b’ibihugu byombi zirimo zabereye i Kampala n’i Kigali.

Umwe mu bakurikiranye izi nama, yabwiye IGIHE ko byasaga nko kugosorera mu rucaca ku ruhande rwa Uganda, kuko ibyo iki gihugu cyabaga cyemeye ko kigiye gukosora, bwacyaga kikongera kubikora.

Ati “Reba za nama zose zaberaga i Kampala, Kigali n’ahandi hagafatwa umwanzuro wo gukemura ikibazo, byinjiriraga mu gutwi kumwe bigaca mu kundi, byari nko guta umwanya.”

Abasesenguzi bagaragaza ko ibiganiro byahuje impande zombi bigizwemo uruhare n'abahuza nta kintu na kimwe byatanze / Ifoto: Village Urugwiro

Agatsiko ka Museveni kabitse ibanga

Hari amakuru IGIHE ifite ko mu biganiro byahuje impande zombi, byasaga n’aho abayobozi bamwe ba Uganda batazi umuzi w’ikibazo cy’i Kigali cyangwa batacyumva kimwe, ku buryo “rimwe na rimwe banyuranyaga mu mvugo”, abandi ukabona ko nubwo babyumva, “baca amarenga y’uko ntacyo bagikoraho”.

Uwaduhaye amakuru yagize ati “Hari benshi bari muri delegasiyo ya Uganda wumvaga batumva ibibazo by’u Rwanda, hari n’ababaga batabizi, ntabwo ari abayobozi ba Uganda bose, abaminisitiri ba Uganda bose babaga bafite amakuru yose, wasangaga Museveni n’abamugaragiye aribo bafata imyanzuro.”

Mu bantu bo hafi cyane ba Museveni bazi neza iby’ikibazo cy’ihohoterwa rikorerwa Abanyarwanda n’ibijyanye no gufasha imitwe ishaka guhungabanya umutekano w’u Rwanda, harimo nka Abel Kandiho ukuriye Urwego rw’Ubutasi mu Gisirikare wanakunze gushyirwa mu majwi cyane nk’urangaje imbere iyicarubozo rikorerwa Abanyarwanda.

Uyu mugabo kandi yanavuzwe mu idosiye ya FLN, aho Nsabimana Callixte ‘Sankara’ yahishuye ko yari yarabemereye ubufasha.

Usibye Sankara, hari n’abandi batawe muri yombi binyuze mu bikorwa karahabutaka by’ingabo za FARDC byo guhiga imitwe yitwaje intwaro igaragara mu Burasirazuba bwa Congo. Muri bo harimo nka Rtd Major Habib Mudathiru wafashwe, ageze mu rukiko ashimangira uko Uganda yari ishyigikiye umutwe wa P5 yabagamo wa Kayumba Nyamwasa.

Uyu mugabo yavuze uburyo mu Ukuboza 2017 ari we wari ukuriye igikorwa cyo gukura muri Uganda itsinda ry’impunzi 40 z’abanyarwanda zari zijyanywe mu myitozo ya gisirikare muri RDC ariko umugambi wabo ukaza kuburizwamo.

Izo mpunzi zari itsinda rigizwe n’abasore bakiri bato, bagenderaga ku byangombwa by’inzira by’igihe gito bya Uganda ariko by’ibihimbano, bahawe n’Urwego rushinzwe Ubutasi mu Ngabo za Uganda, CMI, kugira ngo bazabashe kwambuka umupaka wa Tanzania, berekeze mu Burundi hanyuma binjire muri mu Majyepfo ya RDC ahazwi nko mu Minembwe.

Agatsiko ka Museveni kazi uyu mugambi wo gutsikamira u Rwanda karimo kandi Maj Gen Kahinda Otafiire, ni Minisitiri w’Ubutabera wa Uganda; Martin Okoth Ochola uyobora Polisi ya Uganda kuva muri Werurwe 2018; Salim Saleh, murumuna wa Perezida Museveni, akaba umwizerwa we guhera no mu gihe cy’intambara yo kubohora Uganda n’abandi bake.

Aba babitse amabanga menshi y’umugambi wa Museveni ku Rwanda kuko ari nabo bakunda kumvikana ku isonga mu bikorwa bibangamira u Rwanda.

Amaherezo azaba ayahe?

Amaherezo y’ikibazo cy’u Rwanda na Uganda ni ihurizo rimaze imyaka myinshi ryibazwa na buri wese ukurikiranira hafi iby’umubano w’ibihugu byombi. Kuzahuka kwawo, ni inyungu ku baturage kuko bizongera byoroshye urujya n’uruza, ubuhahirane, ubukungu butere imbere kurushaho.

Gusa urebye izingiro ry’ikibazo, rishingiye ahanini ku “myumvire” ya Perezida Museveni, wakomeje gutsimbarara ntashake kumva ko u Rwanda ari igihugu cyigenga, gifite ubusugire, kidakorera mu kwaha k’umuntu uwo ariwe wese.

Umusesenguzi waganiriye na IGIHE yagize ati “Museveni afite ikintu cyo kwiyita umuhanga, umuntu ukunda Afurika, ushaka kuyobora Afurika, akabona u Rwanda rutabyumva uko.”

Ikindi kigarukwaho ni ukuba uko imyaka ishira ari ko u Rwanda ruhamya intambwe mu kugira ijambo mu ruhando mpuzamahanga, rugakomeza gufatwa nk’intangarugero muri byinshi. Undi waganiriye na IGIHE, yavuze ko uko gushimwa k’u Rwanda “[Museveni] bimusigara mu mutwe ahantu”.

Abasesenguzi bagaragaza ko kuba ikibazo Museveni afite ku Rwanda gishingiye ku nzigo n’inzika cyo kimwe n’urwango afitiye abo yitaga “udusore” kuva kera, bituma kumvikanisha ishingiro ryacyo bigorana, aho bagaragaza ko amarangamutima bwite ye adakwiriye kubangamira inyungu rusange.

Bahuriza ku kuba “ikibazo kiri kuri Museveni n’agatsiko ke” kandi ko atazapfa “guhinduka”. Mu gihe yahindura imyumvire, “ni bwo umuntu yakwizera ko ikibazo gikemutse” naho ibitari ibyo, urwishe ya nka ruracyayizibya amatwi.

Ibikorwa byo guhohotera abanyarwanda no gufasha imitwe yitwaje intwaro igamije guhungabanya umutekano w’u Rwanda, byatumye umupaka wa Gatuna ufungwa
Umuyobozi Mukuru wa Polisi ya Uganda, Martin Okoth Ochola, ni umwe mu bantu bo hafi ba Museveni bazi neza ibikorwa byose bikorwa n'igihugu cye bibangamira u Rwanda n'abanyarwanda
Brig. Gen. Abel Kandiho akuriye Urwego rw’Ubutasi mu Gisirikare, , ni umwe mu bashyizwe mu majwi kuva ku munsi wa mbere mu bari ku isonga mu bikorwa ry’iyicarubozo rikorerwa abanyarwanda
Maj Gen Kahinda Otafiire ni Minisitiri w’Ubutabera wa Uganda. Yananiwe gukemura ikibazo cy'abanyarwanda bafungwa mu buryo bunyuranyije n'amategeko mu gihugu cye
Salim Saleh ni murumuna wa Perezida Museveni. Yatangiye kugira uruhare mu bikorwa bigamije kubangamira umudendezo w'u Rwanda mbere guhera mu myaka ya 1995
Rujugiro Tribert wahunze igihugu akajya gukorana n’abarwanya ubutegetsi bw’u Rwanda, aracyafitanye umubano ukomeye na Leta ya Uganda
Kayumba Nyamwasa wabaye umusirikare mukuru mu Ngabo z’u Rwanda ari mu barwanya ubutegetsi. Ubu yashinze amashami muri Uganda, aho yifashisha iki gihugu cy'igituranyi mu gushaka abarwanyi bajya mu mitwe ya gisirikare igamije guhungabanya umutekano w'u Rwanda

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